Table of Contents

What is the MERN Stack?

Before MERN stack, it was earlier named as MEAN stack, MERN Stack is one of the variations of MEAN, here MEAN is also comprises of four components or say four different technologies, i.e., M is for MongoDB, E is for Express, A is for Angular.js, and N  is for Node.

MERN is comprised of four different technologies:
MERN stack is a collection of technologies that enables faster application development. It is used by developers worldwide. The main purpose of using MERN stack is to develop apps using JavaScript only. This is because the four technologies that make up the technology stack are all JS-based.

MERN Stack Architecture

The MERN architecture allows you to easily construct a 3-tier architecture (frontend, backend, database) entirely using JavaScript and JSON.
MERN Stack Architecture
The architecture of our application is based on a typical MVC model. Our Client tier (View) will be written in Javascript, HTML, and CSS, using ReactJS as the framework. This level of the architecture is what the user will interact with to access the features of our application.
The Business Logic Tier (Controller) will be written using NodeJs and ExpressJS, and this tier represents the Application Server that will act as a bridge of communication for the Client Tier and Database Tier. This tier will serve HTML pages to the user’s device and accept HTTP requests from the user and follow with the appropriate response.
Our Database Tier (Model) will be hosting MongoDB. This is where we will store all of the crucial data our application needs to function.

MERN Stack Components


What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is an open source NoSQL database management program. NoSQL is used as an alternative to traditional relational databases. NoSQL databases are quite useful for working with large sets of distributed data. MongoDB is a tool that can manage document-oriented information, store or retrieve information.
The MongoDB database is developed and managed by MongoDB.Inc under SSPL(Server Side Public License) and initially released in February 2009. It also provides official driver support for all the popular languages like C, C++, C#, and .Net, Go, Java, Node.js, Perl, PHP, Python, Motor, Ruby, Scala, Swift, Mongoid. So, that you can create an application using any of these languages. Nowadays there are so many companies that used MongoDB like Facebook, Nokia, eBay, Adobe, Google, etc. to store their large amount of data.

What is ExpressJs?

Express is a fast, unopinionated minimalist web framework for Node.js
It provides various features that make web application development fast and easy which otherwise takes more time using only Node.js.
Express is a mature, flexible, lightweight server framework. It is designed for building single, multi-page, and hybrid web applications. This lightweight framework uses the Pug engine to provide support for templates.
Express.js is a free and open-source software used as a back-end web application framework.
Express.js is based on the Node.js middleware module called connect which in turn uses http module. So, any middleware which is based on connect will also work with Express.js.
Pre-requisites to learn Express:

What is NodeJS?

Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment. It is a popular tool for almost any kind of project!
Node.js can performs an I/O operation, like reading from the network, accessing a database or the filesystem, instead of blocking the thread and wasting CPU cycles waiting, Node.js will resume the operations when the response comes back.
With Node.js web applications, you can now work in real-time and have a 2-way communication. The state is maintained, and either the client or server can start the communication.
Many of the basic modules of Node.js are written in JavaScript. Node.js is mostly used to run real-time server applications.
Pre-requisites to learn NodeJS

What is ReactJS?

ReactJS was initially developed and maintained by Facebook and later used in its products like WhatsApp & Instagram.
ReactJS is a declarative, efficient, and flexible JavaScript library for building reusable UI components. It is an open-source, component-based front end library which is responsible only for the view layer of the application.
With the frontend React JavaScript library, one can efficiently build user interfaces rendered in HTML. In the MVC model, React acts as the View layer and has declarative views.
One-direction data flow provides a stable code. This gives better control over it.
ReactJS is a component-based framework. The code is written in templates to make it easy to pass the entire data through the application.

Advantages of MERN Stack

Disadvantages of MERN Stack

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